一、初识Graphviz

1.1 简介

GraphViz是一个开源的图像可视化的软件,是贝尔实验室开发的一个开源的工具包,它使用一个特定的DSL(领域特定语言): dot作为脚本语言,然后使用布局引擎来解析此脚本,并完成自动布局。graphviz提供丰富的导出格式,如常用的图片格式,SVGPDF格式等

1.2 环境搭建

结合sublime Text插件实时编译预览

使用shift+command+p,输入搜索选中Package Control: Install Package,然后输入GraphViz,然后安装GraphVizPreview即可,安装完成后,只要全选中代码,然后按shift+command+g就可以预览了。

  • 其实也可以直接用brew安装GraphViz,但是每次要敲命令行,太麻烦了

mac下执行

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brew install graphviz

终端编译代码 dot test.dot -T png -o test.png

二、使用

Graphviz 支持两类图:无向图(graph,用“ - - ”表示节点之间)和 有向图(digraph,用“ ->” 表示节点之间)。graphviz包含3中元素,图,顶点和边。每个元素都可以具有各自的属性,用来定义字体,样式,颜色,形状等

GraphViz中包含多种布局

  • dot 默认布局,用于有向图
  • neato 基于spring-model算法(force-based)
  • twopo 径向布局
  • circo 圆形布局
  • fdp 用于无向图

2.1 第一个graphviz图

语法介绍 http://graphs.grevian.org/reference

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digraph abc{
a;
b;
c;
d;

a -> b;
b -> d;
c -> d;
}

定义顶点和边的样式

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digraph abc{
node [shape="record"];
edge [style="dashed"];
a;
b;
c;
d;

a -> b;
b -> d;
c -> d;
}

进一步修改顶点和边样式,将顶点a的颜色改为淡绿色,并将cd的边改为红色

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digraph abc{
node [shape="record"];
edge [style="dashed"];

a [style="filled", color="black", fillcolor="chartreuse"];
b;
c;
d;

a -> b;
b -> d;
c -> d [color="red"];
}

其他例子

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digraph demo{
label="儿茶酚胺合成代谢路径";

酪氨酸 -> L多巴 -> 多巴胺 -> 去甲肾上腺素 -> 肾上腺素;

下丘脑 -> 多巴胺;
交感神经元 -> 去甲肾上腺素;
肾上腺髓质 -> 去甲肾上腺素,肾上腺素;

酪氨酸 [label="酪氨酸",color=green];
多巴胺 [label="多巴胺", color=red];
肾上腺素 [label="肾上腺素", color=red];

下丘脑 [shape=box];
交感神经元 [shape=box];
肾上腺髓质 [shape=box];
}

2.2 带标签

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digraph {

player[label = "player", color = Blue, fontcolor = Red, fontsize = 24, shape = box];
game[label = "game", color = Red, fontcolor = Blue, fontsize = 24, shape = ellipse];

player -> game[label = "play"]
}

2.3 子视图

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digraph {

label = visitNet

rankdir = LR

node[color = Red, fontsize = 24, shape = box]
edge[color = Blue, style = "dashed"]

user[style = "filled", color = "yellow", fillcolor = "chartreuse"]
subgraph cluster_cd{
label = "server and browser"
bgcolor = green;

browser -> server
}

user -> computer;
computer -> browser;
}

2.4 结构视图

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digraph {

node[shape = record];
struct1[label = "<f0> left|<f1> mid&#92; dle|<f2> right"];
struct2[label = "<f0> one|<f1> two"];
struct3[label = "hello&#92;nworld | {b|{c|<here> d|e}|f}|g|h"];
struct1:f1 -> struct2:f0;
struct1:f2 -> struct3:here;
}

2.5 树形结构

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digraph tree {

fontname = "PingFang-SC-Light"
fontsize = 24

node[shape = "plaintext"]

1 -> 2;
1 -> 3;
2 -> 4;
2 -> 5;
3 -> 6;
3 -> 7;
4 -> 8;
4 -> 9;
5 -> 10;
5 -> 11;
6 -> 12;
6 -> 13;
7 -> 14;
7 -> 15;
}

2.6 时序图

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digraph time {

rankdir = "LR";
node[shape = "point", width = 0, height = 0];
edge[arrowhead = "none", style = "dashed"];

{
rank = "same"
edge[style = "solided"];
APP[shape = "plaintext"];
APP -> step00 -> step01 -> step02 -> step03 -> step04 -> step05;
}

{
rank="same";
edge[style="solided"];
SDK[shape="plaintext"];
SDK -> step10 -> step11 -> step12 -> step13 -> step14 -> step15;
}
{
rank="same";
edge[style="solided"];
AliPay[shape="plaintext"];
AliPay -> step20 -> step21 -> step22 -> step23 -> step24 -> step25;
}
{
rank="same";
edge[style="solided"];
Server[shape="plaintext"];
Server -> step30 -> step31 -> step32 -> step33 -> step34 -> step35;
}

step00 -> step10 [label="sends order info", arrowhead="normal"];
step11 -> step21 [label="open AliPay", arrowhead="normal"];
step22 -> step12 [label="pay success", arrowhead="normal"];
step13 -> step03 [label="pay success", arrowhead="normal"];
step24 -> step34 [label="pay success", arrowhead="normal"];
}

2.7 一个hash表的数据结构

hash表内容

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struct st_hash_type {
int (*compare) ();
int (*hash) ();
};

struct st_table_entry {
unsigned int hash;
char *key;
char *record;
st_table_entry *next;
};

struct st_table {
struct st_hash_type *type;
int num_bins;
/* slot count */
int num_entries;
/* total number of entries */
struct st_table_entry **bins;
/* slot */
};

脚本如下:

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digraph st2{
fontname = "Verdana";
fontsize = 10;
rankdir=TB;

node [fontname = "Verdana", fontsize = 10, color="skyblue", shape="record"];

edge [fontname = "Verdana", fontsize = 10, color="crimson", style="solid"];

st_hash_type [label="{<head>st_hash_type|(*compare)|(*hash)}"];
st_table_entry [label="{<head>st_table_entry|hash|key|record|<next>next}"];
st_table [label="{st_table|<type>type|num_bins|num_entries|<bins>bins}"];

st_table:bins -> st_table_entry:head;
st_table:type -> st_hash_type:head;
st_table_entry:next -> st_table_entry:head [style="dashed", color="forestgreen"];
}

2.8 模块的生命周期图

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digraph module_lc{
rankdir=TB;
fontname = "Microsoft YaHei";
fontsize = 12;

node [fontname = "Microsoft YaHei", fontsize = 12, shape = "Mrecord", color="skyblue", style="filled"];
edge [fontname = "Microsoft YaHei", fontsize = 12, color="darkgreen" ];

installed [label="已安装状态"];
resolved [label="已就绪状态"];
uninstalled [label="已卸载状态"];
starting [label="正在启动"];
active [label="已激活(运行)状态"];
stopping [label="正在停止"];
start [label="", shape="circle", width=0.5, fixedsize=true, style="filled", color="black"];

start -> installed [label="安装"];
installed -> uninstalled [label="卸载"];
installed -> resolved [label="准备"];
installed -> installed [label="更新"];
resolved -> installed [label="更新"];
resolved -> uninstalled [label="卸载"];
resolved -> starting [label="启动"];
starting -> active [label=""];
active -> stopping [label="停止"];
stopping -> resolved [label=""];
}

2.9 简单的UML类图

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digraph G{

fontname = "Courier New"
fontsize = 10

node [ fontname = "Courier New", fontsize = 10, shape = "record" ];
edge [ fontname = "Courier New", fontsize = 10 ];

Animal [ label = "{Animal |+ name : String\\l+ age : int\\l|+ die() : void\\l}" ];

subgraph clusterAnimalImpl{
bgcolor="yellow"
Dog [ label = "{Dog||+ bark() : void\\l}" ];
Cat [ label = "{Cat||+ meow() : void\\l}" ];
};

edge [ arrowhead = "empty" ];

Dog->Animal;
Cat->Animal;
Dog->Cat [arrowhead="none", label="0..*"];
}

2.10 有限状态机

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digraph finite_state_machine {
rankdir=LR;
size="8,5"
node [shape = circle];
S0 -> S1 [ label = "Lift Nozzle" ]
S1 -> S0 [ label = "Replace Nozzle" ]
S1 -> S2 [ label = "Authorize Pump" ]
S2 -> S0 [ label = "Replace Nozzle" ]
S2 -> S3 [ label = "Pull Trigger" ]
S3 -> S2 [ label = "Release Trigger" ]
}

三、语法

完整列表 http://graphviz.org/doc/info/attrs.html

3.1 图像属性

  • label="My Graph"; 给图像设置标签
  • rankdir=LR; 将图片由原来的从上到下布局变成从左到右布局
  • {rank=same; a, b, c } 将一组元素放到同一个level
  • splines="line"; 让边框变为直线,没有曲线和锐角
  • K=0.6; 用来在布局中影响spring属性,spring属性可以用于将节点往外推,这个在twopisfdp布局中很有用。

3.2 交点属性

  • [label="Some Label"] 给交点打标签
  • [color="red"] 给交点上色
  • [fillcolor="blue"] 设置交点的填充色

3.3 边的属性

  • [label="Some Label"] 给边设置标签 (设置路径权重的时候很有用)
  • [color="red"] # 给交点上色 (标示路径的时候很有用)
  • [penwidth=2.0] # 给边适配厚度,标示路径的时候很有用。

3.4 尺寸, 背景颜色

  • fixedsize=true;
  • size="1,1";
  • resolution=72;
  • bgcolor="#C6CFD532";

四、一些技巧

4.1 插入图片

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digraph {

c[shape = none, image = "./pic.png"]
a -> b -> c;
c -> d;
}

注:需要用命令行dot test.dot -T png -o test.png生成,前提是用brew安装了GraphViz

4.2 统一节点和连线

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digraph {

node[color = Red, fontsize = 24, shape = box]
edge[color = Blue, style = "dashed"]

c[shape = none, image = "./pic.png"]
a -> b -> c;
c -> d;
}

转载请保持原始链接

原始链接: https://ru23.com/note/9e68349b.html